Sample Lesson Plan: The Discovery and Colonization of Puerto Rico
This lesson is based on the World Heritage List nomination file for the historic fortifications of San Juan and the "National Park Service" handbook, The Forts of Old San Juan. It was written by Rosanna Weltzin and other members of the staff of San Juan National Historic Site. The lesson was edited by the Teaching with Historic Places staff. TwHP is sponsored, in part, by the Cultural Resources Training Initiative and Parks as Classrooms programs of the National Park Service. This lesson is one in a series that brings the important stories of historic places into the classrooms across the country.
Students will develop a deeper understanding of the impact of the New World discovered on the Indian Tribes of the Americas.
- RL5.2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
- RI5.2 Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
- RI5.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
- RI5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
- RF5.4a Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
- RF5.4b Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- RF5.3.3c Usan correctamente el acento escrito de acuerdo con el acento tónico en palabras al nivel de grado aplicando un análisis sistemático: 1. Cuentan el número de sílabas. 2. Nombran la sílaba que lleva el énfasis (última, penúltima, antepenúltima). 3. Categorizan la palabra según su acento tónico (aguda, grave, esdrújula, sobreesdrújula). 4. Determinan el sonido o la letra en que termina la palabra (vocal, consonante, /n/ o /s/). 5. Escriben el acento ortográfico si es necesario. 6. Justifican la acentuación de palabras de acuerdo a las reglas ortográficas.
- W5.1a Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
- 5.H.1.H Evaluate the relationships between European explorers (French, Spanish and English) and American Indian groups, based on accuracy of historical information (beliefs, fears, and leadership).
- 5.C.1.1 Analyze the change in leadership, cultures and everyday life of American Indian groups before and after European exploration.
Objectives for students:
- Become familiar with the Arawak culture present in the Caribbean prior to the Encounter.
- Learn Arawak vocabulary words, some of which are a part of English today.
- Identify cognates to make cross linguistic connections between English/ Spanish and acquire higher academic language. ← BRIDGING
- Discuss the positive and negative consequences of “discovery.”
- Compare and contrast their daily lives with Guanín’s.
- Practice correct Spanish accentuation, intonation and fluency by reading an authentic poem about the topic. ← R.F.5.3.3.c
- Discuss the use of symbols as communication.
- Discuss the concept of beauty within all the cultures represented in the classroom. ← CULTURAL COMPETENCE
- Create a “guanín” medallion using Taíno symbols.
- Write a continuation of the story incorporating Arawak vocabulary.
- ¿Cómo puedo usar un mapa contextual para explicar las aportaciones de Puerto Rico a la historia y desarrollo de los pueblos del Caribe?
- ¿Qué puedo aprender sobre la cultura de los grupos indígenas oriundos de Puerto Rico?
- ¿Cuáles son algunas características de la cultura taína que podemos transpolar al mundo actual?
Materials for students:
The materials listed below either can be used directly on the computer or can be printed out, photocopied, and distributed to students. The maps and images appear twice: in a low-resolution version with associated questions and alone in a larger, high-quality version.
- two maps of San Juan Island
- one reading and one poem on the history of Puerto Rico and the evolution of its defensive system
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJD8jOaTJGk about “Iconos Taínos”
Teachers will model the concept of "Cognates” during the reading of “The Discovery and Colonization of Puerto Rico”. After that, students will work on identifying cognates during the unit independently, in pairs or small groups. Finally, an interactive academic language word wall will be created by students classifying those cognates in Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3 words.